The range of the Gulf Coast toad spreads along the coast of Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz, Mexico and then northward into central Texas, further westward into Louisiana, northwestward through southern Mississippi, and ends northward in Arkansas.
The Incilius nebulifer thrives in moisture but can be found anywhere. It is most commonly found in coastal prairies, barrier beaches, road cuts, crevices, etc. Females lay eggs in pools, artificial or natural, including roadside and irrigation ditches. Larvae grow and develop in these pools.
The gulf coast toad is a large species of toad with males averaging 3.86 inches and females averaging 4.92 inches (snout-to-vent length). The head is wide and has the full complement of cranial crests. The snout is rounded and it has a large tympanum (with a size of about 50% the diameter of the eye). Males have a conspicuous vocal sac that may be seen through the granular skin at the throat. The skin is rough, with the tubercles evenly distributed and sharp-pointed, enlarged tubercles characterize the flanks. The skin near the belly is usually cream-colored. The dorsal surfaces vary in color but most specimens have a dorsal pattern that displays a dark brown background coloration. A wide, cream or yellow mid-dorsal stripe may be apparent. Randomly-placed markings of cream may appear on some specimens, scattered across dorsal surfaces. The fingers on the hands are short and robust with no webbing. The toes are slender and half-webbed on the long feet. The tadpoles are small (0.79-0.98 inches), dark gray with pale spots that reach the tail.
Learn more with Schechter Natural History's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians